strong swimmers to drown. 38 The physiological effects caused by the diving reflex conflict with the body's cold shock response, which includes a gasp and uncontrollable hyperventilation leading to aspiration of water. "Overall and cause-specific premature mortality in epilepsy: A systematic review". 49 Contaminants in the water can cause bronchospasm and impaired gas exchange, and can cause secondary infection with delayed severe respiratory compromise. Large amounts of froth will be present around the mouth and nostrils and in the upper and lower airways in freshly drowned bodies. In Fletemeyer, John.; Freas, Samuel. The brain will die after approximately six minutes without oxygen at normal body temperature, but hypothermia of the central nervous system may prolong this. Citation needed After a successful approach, negatively buoyant objects such as a weight belt are removed. International Life Saving Federation. The fatal drowning rate of African American children of ages from 5 to 14 is almost three times that of white children in the same age range, and.5 times higher in swimming pools.